Generally, There are two general classes of handling equipment: the floor type and overhead type. Let we find the kinds of first classes. They are:
- Hand truck, these include the 4-wheel hand-lift truck used for transporting skids and platforms; the 4-wheel wood-stake truck used for all-purpose carrying; the stock handling cart or “tea wagon” type of truck for handling small capacity, light item of all sorts; and the general –purpose 2-wheel truck. In addition, there are special purpose hand trucks designed to accommodate beer kegs, barrels, carboys, etc.
- Truck tractors, generally small but powerful gas powered tractors used with trailers. Frequently they are generally of the single-wheel-in front, short-wheel-base variety to provide a small turning radius and all round maneuverability. It is can be employed in outdoor and indoor application.
- Power lift truck, it is very useful type of equipment in any plan, these truck are gases or electrically powered and are provided with either an elevating platform, a set of tiering forks, a ram, or a crane depending upon the application these kind of trucks may be low-lift using for simply transporting and low stacking materials, or they may be of the telescoping high-lift type to permit stacking all the way up to the storehouse roof. Tiering forks are used in conjunction with wood pallets, which are inexpensive and may be carried and stacked in much the same manner as the conventional skid on the platform truck. The ram is used with special classes of materials, such as coils of strip steel and wire which may be handled by their hollow interior. For small loads, generally about under 1 ton, a powered hand-lift truck, likewise made with either a platform or a fork, low or high lift as the occasion demands, is in a economical vehicle for transporting and stacking.
- Stacker, kind of moderately mobile, primarily used stacker for the vertical stacking of heavy or bulky articles. Example for common type is the barrel stacker for handling standard oil drums and other barrel products to and from a barrel stack rack wherein they may be stored vertically as high desired. For the next type, semiautomatic and fully automatic stackers developed for loading and unloading racks in warehouse area with a minimum of manpower.
- Gravity-roll conveyors, used to convey the materials on ball-bearing rollers down a gentle grade by utilizing the natural force of gravity. The articles moved on roll conveyors may range in size from a few ounces to 20 tons, even more. There are kinds of this machine for their several usage (different type of weigh). The length of such conveyors may vary from a few feet between machines or operations to several hundred feet between departments. Conveyor manufactures stand ready to provide a variety of standard curves (to permit material to turn corners or go around objects) and roller spiral (to accomplish a considerable vertical drop in a short distance). They will also provide storage deck of conveyors (to facilitate storing a “float” of materials between operations), gate-hinge mechanisms (to permit the lateral passage of employees), and power booster (to provide increased elevation).
- Power conveyors, used in applications when gravity-roll conveyors are not practicable, as would be the case where small individual parts are conveyed separately or where vertical or sloping changes in elevation as from one floor to the next are required. The exact type of conveyor will depend upon the application. Belt conveyors are in common use and generally consist of powered endless belts traveling over rollers. Slat conveyors, apron conveyors, and push-bar lifts are simply adaptation of belt type. Oscillating trough conveyors, consisting of flat-bottom metal troughts which are given an upward and forward vibratory motion, can convey such items as coffee, steel chips, sand and even small metal parts.
Now let’s we talk about the varietes of overhead handling equipment that is most widely used.
- Chain conveyor, these are the number of types but usually employ an overhead monorail on which run trolleys attached at regular interval to an endless chain. Under each trolley is placed a hook or other carrying device. The principal advantages connected with these conveyors are that they are located overheadand out of the way, that they thereby do not take up valuable floor, space, and that they can be used to pre-position the material at leveland at the point in the plan where it is desired for use. Many continuous process conveyors are of the chain type. Some, instead of being located are placed under the floor.
- Cranes, There are so many varied types of cranes that any generalization as to their characteristic is some what difficult, however, all of them, wheter they be classed as traveling, locomotive, tractor, jib, or gantry, both pick up and transport the material. Their application is generally for extremely heavy materials sporadically handled.
- Tram-rail and monorail hoist, kind of simply standard chain, electricity, or pneumatic hoists mounted to a single rail by means of a trolley. Horizontal movement may be controlled electrically or by hand. Such an arrangement adds mobility to what would be a stationary hoist.
Taken from: industrial orga nization and management book
Redactional : abng